Parsa National Park declared in 1984 as a Wildlife Reserve and in 2017 as a National Park, is situated in the south-central lowland of Nepal covering parts of Makwanpur, Bara, and Parsa districts. Initially, the area of the Parsa National Park was 499 km2 and extended to 627.39 km2 in 2015 to preserve the habitat for the resident wild Asian elephant and other flora and fauna. It was the largest wildlife reserve of Nepal before declaring as a National park. This Park is representative of the historical Charkoshe Jhadi and Bhabar zone for biodiversity conservation. It is contiguous to the Valmiki Tiger Reserve of the Bihar State of India in the south and Chitwan National Park in the west. The eastern boundary of the park is the National forest of Bara district.
In 2005, an area of 285.3 km2 in and around the park was declared as a buffer zone. Buffer zone (the area adjacent to park boundary) management is a joint venture between the park office and local communities. Local communities have a decision making role in the management of such areas. Additionally, the National Parks and Wildlife Conservation Act, 1973 has made a provision of plowing back 30-50 percent of the park’s revenue into community development and conservation of the buffer zone.
Major Flora and Fauna of Parsa National Park
Parsa National Park and its buffer zone consist of tropical and subtropical zone, rich in floral and faunal diversity. Major forest types of Parsa National Park are Sal forests, mixed riverine deciduous forests, mixed hardwood deciduous forest, riverine forests, and Pine forests. Sal (Shorea robusta) forests compose 90% of the park’s vegetation. Sal (Shorea robusta), Asna (Teminalia tomentosa), Khair (Acacia catechu), Sissoo (Dalbergia sissoo), Simal (Bombax ceiba), Bot Dhangero (Largestromia parviflora), Karma (Adina cordifolia) & Khote salla (Pinus roxburghii) are major species of woody plants found in PNP. Different types of grasses, including the elephant grass (sacharum spp), are found in the park.
The park supports a good population of various faunal species. The most important wildlife species, for which the park is renowned, is its residential population of wild Asian elephants. Other endangered species including Royal Bengal Tiger (Panthera tigris Tigris), Striped hyaena (Hyaena hyaena), Pangolin (Manis pentadactyla), Bison (Bos gauras), Four-horned antelope (Tetraceros quadricornis) and Wolf (Canis lupus). Mammals such as Sloth bear (Melarsus ursinus), Leopard (Panthera pardus), Wild dog (Cuon alpinus), Blue bull (Boselaphus tragocamelus), Sambar deer (Curvus unicolor), Chital (Axis axis), Hog deer (Axis porcinus), Barking deer (Muntiacus muntijak), Langur cat (Felis chaus) and Asian palm civet (Paradoxurus hermaphroditus) are also found in the park.
The park also provides habitat to more than 300 species of birds. White-breasted kingfisher (Halcyon smyrnensis), Paradise fly catcher (Terpsiphone paradisi), Large Racquet Tailed drongo (Dicrurus paradiseus), Golden Backed Woodpecker (Dinopium benghalense), etc are some of the common sights. Gaint hornbill (Buceros bicornis), one of the endangered species is found in certain forest patches. The park is also famous for reptiles. Different kinds of snakes include King Cobra, Common Cobra, common and banded Karet are found here, along with endangered reptilies species like Python (Python molurus) and Golden monitor lizard (Varanus flavescens).
|Parsa National Park and Buffer Zone Fact Sheet|
|Declared year||1984 AD as a Wildlife Reserve, 2017 AD as a National park|
|National Park area||627.39 km2|
|Location||The southern part of Nepal (Makawanpur, Bara and Parsa district)|
|Bio-climatic Zone||Tropical to Sub-tropical|
|Elevation||100m -950m above Mean Sea Level|
|Major Lake||Halkhoriya, Kamini|
|Major Rivers||Rapti, Bhedaha, Dudhaura, Pasaha, Bhata etc.|
|Main Mammals||Elephas maximus, Panthera tigris, Stiped hyaena, Manis pentadactyla, Bos gaurus, Tetraceros quadricornis , panthera pardus, Paradoxurus hermaphroditus etc.|
|Main birds||Buceros bicornis, Halcyon smyrnensis, Terpsiphone paradisi, Dicrurus paradiseus, Dinopium benghalense etc.|
|Major tree species||Shorea robusta, Terminalia tomentosa, Acasia catechu, Dalbergia sissoo, Bombax ceiba, Largestromia parviflora,
Adiana cardifolia Pinus roxburghii etc.
|Buffer zone declared||2005 AD|
|Buffer zone area||285.3 km2|
|Rural Munucipality||2 (Manahari and Thori)|
|Sub-metropolitan city||2 (Hetauda and Jitpur)|
|Buffer zone user committee||13|
|Population in BZ||About 85000|
|Major ethinic groups||Tamang, Tharu, Bankariya, Chepang, Gurung, Newar etc.|
|Economy||Agriculture, animal husbandry, trade, and labor|
Physical Features of Parsa National Park
The altitude of the park ranges from 100 m to 950m above mean sea level. Broadly, the Park can be divided into three topographic regions from north to south viz. the Churia (Siwalik), Bhabar, Terai and inner-Terai. The Churia and Bhabar zones jointly cover about a two-third area of the park, while Terai and inner-Terai occupy approximately 37.38% land of the reserve. The soil is primarily composed of gravel and conglomerates, making it very susceptible to erosion. The hills present a very rugged face with numerous gullies and dry stream beds. As the foothills are very porous, water flows underground and surfaces at a distance of about 15 km from the Churia hills base.
Parsa National Park Major Attractions
- Residential Asian Wild Elephant
- Royal Bengel Tiger
- Gaur bison
- Churia/ Siwalik, Bhabar and Low-land Terai
- Kamini and Halkhoria Daha/Lake
Best Season to visit Parsa National Park
In the winter season, local villagers are allowed to cut thatch grass in the Park, which gives visitors better views of the wildlife. Between September & November and February & April, migratory birds join the residential birds and create spectacular bird watching opportunities. While the monsoon rains bring lush vegetation, most trees flower in later winter. Six watch towers inside provide excellent prospects to catch glimpses of many birds, mammals and landscape views of the park. Wild elephants and Tigers could also be sighted from the view towers. Dugdheshwor temple is at top of the hill and is of religious importance. Also one can look over the lush forests of Terai from the top of the hills. Now three elephant camps are located near the Amlekhgunj, Pratappur, and Bhata of Bara, Makwanpur and Parsa district respectively. Jungle drives and elephant rides, which is the best way to get a close view of the wildlife, can be arranged from the Park headquarter and in Bhata.
Accommodation in Parsa National Park
There are hotels, lodges and tea houses in the buffer zone offering modern amenities. Recently community lodge has been constructed in Ramauli village of Makwanpur for tourism promotion and income generation for the buffer zone community. There are many small hotels and lodges available in Pathalaiya and Simara on the highway where Nepali, Indian and Chinese food is available. Hotel and lodge including Homestay have been built close to Amalekhganj elephant camp and Suvarnapur. Luxurious hotels and lodges are available in Hetauda and Birgunj which are about an hour bus and 45 minutes from private vehicles.
How to Get into Parsa National Park
The Parsa National Park headquarter located at Adhavar, is the most accessible headquarter amongst all protected areas of Nepal. This headquarter is connected with other parts of the country via air and road. The park headquarters can be easily reached from Kathmandu in 15 minutes flight to the Simara airport, which is located at a distance of about 8 km south from Adhavar. The park headquarter at Adhavar is about a 5-6 hour drive from Kathmandu and a 6-7 hours drive (approx.230 km) from Pokhara (the tourist destination in Nepal after Kathmandu). Adhavar is a 5-6 hour drive from Lumbini, the birthplace of Lord Gautam Buddha. Hetauda and Birgunj, the two major industrial and business centers of Nepal, are located just about 25 km north and 23 km south from Adhavar respectively. From both of these towns, Adhavar can be reached by bus in less than one hour. Birgunj is also the gat way to Nepal from India.
Use of Entry Fee
30-50% of the park’s entry fee goes directly to the buffer zone communities for:
- Biodiversity Conservation
- Community Development
- Conservation Education
- Income generation and skill development
- First aid kit is recommended to carry by the visitors for their own safety.
- Visitors should be alert from the wildlife inside the core area.
- Carry out what you carry in.
- Buy only what won’t pollute, or carry it out.
- Use safe drinking water (purify water yourself).
- Do not use polythene/ plastic materials.
Park regulations to follow or things to remember
- Valid entry permits are available from our designated counters.
- An entry fee of NRs. 1000.00 (Foreigners), NRs. 500.00 (SAARC) and Nrs. 50.00 (Nepalese) and an additional 13% VAT must be paid at the Park entrance gate per person per day.
- An additional fee for the elephant ride, jeep drives, etc. has to be paid.
- Get special permits for documentary/filming from the Department of National Parks and Wildlife Conservation.
- The entry permit is non-refundable, non- transferable and is for a single entry only.
- Don’t injure, kill or uproot plants and animals.
- All flora and fauna are fully protected and must not be disturbed.
- Do respect cultural and religious sites.
- No one should walk within the Park between sunset and sunrise.
- Carry out non-biodegradable items such as plastic bags and bottles.
- A guide is a must for a jungle walk.