Initially, Shivapuri National Park, gazetted in 2002, covering an area of 144 km2 was renamed as Shivapuri Nagarjun National Park (SNNP), after the addition of Nagarjun forest patch (15 Km2) in 2009. Geographically Shivapuri forest located within 27°45’ to 27°52’ N latitude and 85°16’ to 85°45’ E longitude and Nagarjun forest is located within 27°43’ to 27°46’ N latitude and 85°13’ to 85°18’ E longitude. It covers parts of Kathmandu, Nuwakot, Sindhupalchowk, and Dhading districts of central Nepal and elevation range from 1350 Meter to 2732 Meter above mean sea level. It is only the protected area that represents flora, fauna, and ecosystem of Middle Mountain. It is situated on the Northern fringe of the Kathmandu valley and the park head office is located in Panimuhan, Budanilakantha municipality of Kathmandu district.
Shivapuri Nagarjun National Park is a freshwater source for Kathmandu valley. Nagmati, Bagmati, Syalmati, Bishnumati, Rudramati, Sangala, TusalKhola and their tributaries of Shivapuri Nagarjun National Park are the prime source of drinking water for Kathmandu valley. These rivers and streams discharge about 30 million liters of water per day.
The park area is surrounded by heavy sub-urban population. The Buffer Zone (BZ) of Shivapuri Nagarjun National Park was declared in 2016. The objectives of BZ is to conserve and manage forests to fulfill daily basic needs of local community residing in the periphery of the Shivapuri Nagarjun National Park. It covers an area of 118.61 km2, which covers part of
Kathmandu, Nuwakot Sindhupalchok and Dhading districts. There are 14,558 households with a population of 79,776 residing in the BZ. The National Parks and Wildlife Conservation Act, 1973 has made a provision of plowing back 30-50% of the Park’s revenue into community development and conservation of the buffer zone.
Highlights of Shivapuri Nagarjun National Park
- A region of the rich biodiversity of the mid-hill region
- An important biological corridor that links north-south corridors
- An Important Bird and Biodiversity Area (IBA)
- A major source of fresh water for the Kathmandu valley and buffer zone, fulfilling about 50 percent surface water demand.
- One of the major tourist destinations near the capital city
- A potential area for research and exploration
- A site for conservation education for students and researchers
- A sink for air pollution generated by the Kathmandu Valley
- Watershed conservation of Bagmati, Bishnumati, Trishuli and Indrabati river
Major flora and fauna of Shivapuri Nagarjun National Park
Floral diversity is high in Shivapuri Nagarjun National Park due to its location, altitudinal and climatic variations. The park is located in a sub-tropical and lower temperate zone of Nepal. It harbors a total of 2,122 plant species, 129 species of mushrooms, 50 macrofungi species. There are more than 1250 flowering plants including 16 endemic species. 57 species of medicinal plants and 49 species of edible plants are reported. The Shivapuri Nagarjun National Park comprises four types of forests viz. (i) Lower mixed hardwood forests, (ii) Chirpine forests, (iii) Oak forests and (iv) Upper mixed hardwood forests, which support rich faunal and floral diversity with a number of protected, threatened and endemic wildlife species. Schima wallichii, Castanopsis indica, Alnus nepalensis, Pinus roxburghii, Quercus semicarpifolia, Quercus lanuginose, Rhododendron arboretum are the dominant vegetation in this park.
Faunal diversity of the park includes 24 species of mammals including 9 threatened species. Clouded leopard (Pardofelis nebulosa), two species of pangolin (Manis spp.), Assamese monkey (Macaca assamensis), Leopard cat (Prionailurus bengalensis) are the protected mammals found in SNNP. Common mammals include Common Leopard (Panthera pardus), Himalayan Black Bear (Ursus thibetanus), Goral (Naemorhedus goral), Jungle Cat (Felis chaus), Wild Boar (Sus scrofa), Barking Deer (Muntiacus muntijack), Sambar (Cervus unicolor), Rhesus monkey (Macaca mulata), Porcupine(Hystrix indica), Himalayan Serrow (Capricornis thar), yellow-throated marten (Martes flavigula), large Indian civet (Viverra zibetha), masked palm civet (Paguma larvata), flying squirrel (Petaurista spp.),mongooses and bats. It is home to 106 species of moth and butterflies, and only habitat for the relict Himalayan Dragonfly (Epiophlebia laidlawi) in Nepal. 318 species of birds found in the park, 14 of them are threatened including spiny babbler (Turdoides nepalensis), an endemic species. About 117 species of birds recorded in SNNP are of migratory nature. Some of the threatened bird species of Shivapuri Nagarjun National Park include Oriental hobby, Grey-sided Laughing Thrush and Cinerous vulture, White backed vulture, Himalayan griffon, black vulture, bearded vulture, dark kite, hen harrier, goshawk, sparrow hawk, sikhra, common buzzard, Asian black eagle, steppe eagle, magpies, kalij pheasant, leafbirds, flycatcher, bushchat, babblers, cuckoos, bulbul, swift, warblers and wren babbler (Pnoepyga pusilla) are Common species of bird found in Shivapuri Nagarjun National Park. 18 species of Herpetofauna found in Nagarjun forest. Frogs and toads are common amphibians. King cobra, green pit viper, rat snake, skink, lizards, geckos are common reptiles found in Shivapuri Nagarjun National Park.
Major Attractions of Shivapuri Nagarjun National Park
The major attractions of the park are a scenic view, biodiversity, forest environment, wilderness, avifauna, spirituals fitness, religious sites, trekking, and hiking. The people around the park follow Hindu and Buddhist culture. A visitor can enjoy Aryan and Mongolian culture. Shivapuri peak is a holy place for both Hindus and Buddhists and source of holy rivers Bagmati and Bishnumati. SNNP has important pilgrimage destinations including Bagdwar, Bishnudwar, Jamacho, Buddha Gupha as well as Manichur Mahadev, Kageshwori, Sundarimai, Baudeshwor, Tarkeshowr, Pachali Bhairav, and Nagi Gumba, that provide opportunities for recreation, hiking, spiritual fitness, and wilderness. The Kathmandu based tour/trek operators conduct regular tourism activities like a day-hike to Shivapuri Peak, viewing a snow pear panorama of other Himalaya and visit Nagi gumba. The other popular activities within the park are bird watching, jungle walk, cycling, hiking, and trekking.
Shivapuri Nagarjun National Park Major Hiking Routes
- Panimuhan-Nagigumba-Baghdwar-Shivapuri Peak
- Panimuhan-Bagdwar-Shivapuri Peak
- Panimuhan-Chhapbhanjyang-Shivapuri Peak
- Kakani-Gurje-Chhapbhanjyang-Shivapuri Peak
- Fulbari Gate-Jamacho
Getting into Shivapuri Nagarjun National Park
Shivapuri Nagarjun National Park is connected with networks of roads and trekking routes. Public bus services are available. Common routes are Sundhara–Jamal–Maharajgunj–Budhanilkantha–Panimuhan, Sundhara–Chabahil–Sundarijal, Sundhara–Chabahil–Sankhu, Sundhara–Jamal–Samakhusi–Tokha–Jhor, Sundhara–Jamal– Balaju–Nagarjun, Sundhara–Jamal–Balaju–Kakani. Visitors can enter into the park through Chisapani, Jhule, Sundarijal, Mahankal, Panimuhan, Tokha, Jagat, Kakani and Nagarjun Fulbari gate, paying entry fees on site.
Shivapuri Nagarjun National Park Visitors Facilities
The park is virtually surrounded by a 130 km long stone wall, having 95 km long graveled-road and 83 km foot trails constructed for trekking. There are few hotels/lodges in the buffer zone. Trained and experienced nature guides are available in different entrance gates.
Shivapuri Nagarjun National Park Regulations
- Entering the park without a permit is illegal. Park personnel may ask for the permit, so visitors are requested to keep the permit with them at all times.
- Entering the park is one’s own responsibility.
- The entry permit is non-refundable, non-transferable and is for single entry only.
- Don’t injure, kill or uproot plants and animals. All flora and fauna are fully protected and must not be disturbed.
- Rubbish must be placed out, buried or disposed of in designated areas.
- Vehicles need not blow horn inside the park.
- Carrying arms, ammunition, poisons and use of such things are completely prohibited.
- No one should walk within the park between sunset and sunrise.
- Do respect cultural and religious sites.
- Do not travel alone, nature guide is compulsory.
- Each tourist must pay respective entry fees for park entry permission and adventure activities.
Shivapuri Nagarjun National Park Entry Fee
|Nepali citizen||100||Per day/per person/per entry|
|SAARC citizen||600||Per day/per person/per entry|
|Other Foreigners||1000||Per day/per person/per entry|
|Motorbike||150||per day/per vehicle/per entry|
|Minibus/Bus/Truck||500||per day/per vehicle/per entry|
|Car/Jeep/Taxi/Van||400||per vehicle/per entry|
|Mountain Bike||20||Per day/Per bike/per entry (For Nepali)|
|Mountain Bike||50||Per day/Per bike/per entry (For SAARC)|
|Mountain Bike||150||Per day/Per bike/per entry (For Foreigners)|
|Rock Climbing||250||Per Event (for Nepali)|
|Rock Climbing||500||Per event (for SAARC)|
|Rock Climbing||1000||Per event (for Foreigners)|
|Rock Climbing||2000||Per event|
Conservation History of Shivapuri Nagarjun National Park
|S.N||History of Conservation||Year (AD)|
|1.||Shivapuri Watershed Conservation Area||1976|
|2.||Shivapuri Protected Watershed Area||1978|
|3.||Shivapuri Watershed and Wildlife Reserve||1984|
|4.||Shivapuri National Park||2002|
|5.||Shivapuri Nagarjun National Park||2009|
|6.||Important Bird and Biodiversity Area (IBA)||2005|